Deicing ,snow-melting




The snow-and-ice-covered pavements threaten highway transport safety and smoothness. The use of snow-melting agents is a significant means to ice and snow removal, anti-ice and to anti-skid on the highway in time.

Snowfall and ice endanger road users and stop economic activity. Winter service must be planned and followed up to ensure that roads are open and safe.While facing such difficulties, effective snow fighting ensures access and safe driving conditions throughout winter. While reducing traffic crashes, injuries and fatalities by 88%, it enables greater mobility – for both emergency services and the general public - and fewer lost days for business, schools, factories and public transport services.


With application practice requirements and the advance of the cognitive level of snow-melting agent technology, the highway snow-melting agent technology experiences three stages, which are chloride salt, non-chloride salt and environment-friendly stages. As the chloride salts have been used in large quantities for a long time, their corrosion and damage to the environment and infrastructures are serious and significant because of the existence of the chlorides. So the snow-melting agents such as non-chlorides and environment-friendly agents appear in the market and come into use. It is expected that the use of non-chlorides and environment-friendly snow-melting agents on the ice-and-snow covered pavements can reduce or eliminate the adverse effects on the environment and infrastructures while they have the same melting snow performance as the chloride salts.



Is it right or possible for us to use non-chlorides and environment-friendly snow-melting agents instead of chloride salts? And can the non-chlorides and environment-friendly snow-melting agents function as the alternatives of chloride salts to remove the highway surface ice and snow with fewer effects on the environment and infrastructures? A lot of tests are done about the melting snow and ice performance, the corrosion to the concrete, the effects of poa pratensis seed germination percentage of different snow-melting agents. The tests results show the differences among the different snow-melting agents on the aspects of technology, environment and economy. The applicability of the different snow-melting agents is summarized. Then technological references are put forward to use snow-melting agents efficiently, safely and environmentally-friendly


Road and Maintenance crews have a huge task every winter removing snow and ice from roadways to ensure safe travel.  In adverse winter conditions, HOO CHEMTEC Calcium Chloride is best for melting snow and ice.

Now, all the history proven advantages of Calcium Chloride de-icing are available in easy to use, corrosion inhibited, liquid Calcium Chloride from Hill Brothers. We call it HICO THAW. And, when corrosion inhibition isn’t a concern, regular Calcium Chloride from Hill Brothers works just like HICO THAW.

HICO THAW is a patented formulation of corrosion inhibited Calcium Chloride. Tests have shown a significant reduction in chloride corrosion in steel and aluminum. Less corrosion means longer equipment life, which benefits the road owner, the road maintenance crew, and the road user.

HICO THAW and Calcium Chloride act faster than other chemical de-icers. When HICO THAW Calcium Chloride comes into contact with ice and snow, it produces an exothermic heat reaction that attracts moisture from the air. This gives it superior ice and snow melt capability. The most important factor is that it is effective to sub-zero temperatures. When other chemicals, including salt, lose their ability to perform, HICO THAW Calcium Chloride still does the job.

Because HICO THAW is already in solution, it works faster and for a longer period of time. This can protect the road against ice formation for many hours.


What is de-icing salt


Salt is the most widely used de-icing agent for road maintenance in the world and is used for:

Anti-icing: This refers to the application of pre-wetted salt or brine to enhance the grip between tyres and the road surface.

De-icing: This applies to the application of dry salt or pre-wetted salt. Depending on the sort of salt used, it is usually heated or diluted. In melting snow, de-icing salt is the most efficient agent as long as the pavement temperature isn’t below -18°C.

De-icing is defined as removal of snow, ice or frost from a surface. Anti-icing is understood to be the application of chemicals that not only de-ice, but also remain on a surface and continue to delay the reformation of ice for a certain period of time, or prevent adhesion of ice to make mechanical removal easier;

Salt is considered the best de-icer due to its properties. It has the power to lower the freezing point of water and therefore prevents a bond between ice and road surfaces.

- Easy to spread and store

-The least expensive and most efficient deicer on the market

- Readily available in large quantities


Hoo chemtec supply de-icers ,the following lists contains the most-commonly used de-icing chemicals and their typical chemical formula.

1)Inorganic salts

*Sodium chloride (NaCl or table salt; the most common de-icing chemical)

*Magnesium chloride (MgCl often added to salt to lower its working temperature)

*Calcium chloride (CaCl often added to salt to lower its working temperature)

*Potassium chloride (KCl)


Organic compounds

*Calcium magnesium acetate (CaMg2(CH3COO)

*Potassium acetate (CH3COOK)

*Potassium formate (CHO2K)

*Sodium formate (HCOONa)

*Calcium formate (Ca(HCOO)

*Urea (CO(NH2)

Hoo chemtec's Calcium Chloride Pellets

Clearly Superior: Calcium Chloride Products

Calcium chloride is the fastest, most effective ice-melt material available.  Calcium Chloride Pellets accelerate heat on contact, speeding the melting process.


 This ice-melt product is clearly superior.Releases heat to speed melting,Helps make sidewalks, driveways and parking lots safer;


Magnesium chloride deicing/anti-icing pellets

Effective at low temperatures, Magnesium Cholride Pellets is an environmentally friendly, low-corrosion deicer that clears ice and snow from walkways, driveways, parking lots and roadways.

A 100 percent magnesium chloride hexahydrate, Magnesium Cholride Pellets is an effective deicer created with a unique brine formula and natural solar evaporation procedure. This natural process produces one of the highest-quality, cost-effective, environmentally friendly deicing products in the world.

Magnesium Cholride Pellets' strong hygroscopic action helps it pull moisture from the air to initiate melting. This critical ability to quickly attracts moisture and form a liquid at sub-zero temperatures makes Magnesium Cholride Pellets a superior deicer.

Studies have also shown Magnesium Cholride Pellets to be significantly less corrosive than calcium chloride and other widely used deicing products. It's your choice when your concern for safety is coupled with concern for the environment.


One Of The Best De-Icing Products To Use

Calcium chloride is the chemical most effective at extreme low temperatures. It’s also less likely to cause corrosion or plant damage when applied correctly. Avoid using rock salt whenever possible. Urea (lawn fertilizer) can burn plants and lawns if you apply too much. Urea is also likely to cause pollution in run-off waters during the spring melt.

Using Deicers Correctly

Don’t use deicers to simply melt snow or ice. Use them as an aid to mechanical removal. All deicers need to be used after shoveling and sweeping has removed as much snow and ice as possible and after the threat of additional snowfall has ended. The deicer will melt down to the surface and allow manual removal of the final layer of snow or ice. Avoid shoveling snow that contains deicers directly onto plants. Whenever possible, remove snow and ice manually and then spread an abrasive. Always use deicers sparingly


De-icing Salt

esco de-icing salt is a particularly effective mixture of very pure, fine and coarse salt crystals. While the fine crystals initiate an immediate de-icing effect, the coarser crystals guarantee the necessary long-term effect with thicker ice and snow layers.


Bulk Highway Deicing

 Hoo chemtec help you provide safer highways, streets and bridges during harsh winter weather in all major snow-belt regions. O

We can get salt to you by rail, truck, barge or vessel, so when you need salt


Rock salt is the most cost-effective deicing product available for removing snow and ice, keeping traffic and the economy flowing. It's easy to use, store and apply, and its effectiveness at keeping roads open makes it the cornerstone of most snow removal programs. Used alone, it readily clears snow and ice. It also can be used in a brine or as a preventative before a storm when conditions warrant.



Several performance characteristics should guide the selection of an ice melter, but two are particularly important:

       How well does the low temperature performance of the material match the coldest temperatures you are likely to experience?

       How quickly will the material melt ice to minimize pedestrian exposure to potentially dangerous conditions?

To evaluate the performance of deicers against these two needs, it helps to understand that, for ice to melt, the deicer must dissolve in water to lower its freeze point. This creates a solution that melts the ice on contact. In the case of chloride-based deicers, the solution is referred to as “brine”.

Even though it may not be visible, molecular water is always present on the surface of ice. The amount of water increases at higher temperatures and is reduced when temperatures are colder. If solid deicer is thrown on ice that has little water on its surface, melting can be slow to develop.

So which deicers are likely to dissolve more quickly and at colder temperatures? Because the surface of ice isn’t very wet, you want a hygroscopic deicer that strongly attracts any available moisture from the surface and the surrounding air so it can begin to dissolve even though conditions are relatively dry. You also want a deicer that accelerates melting by chemically reacting with moisture to release significant heat. Ice melters that release heat are called “exothermic” and can be expected to melt ice more quickly and at very cold temperatures.


Some deicers are “endothermic”. Rather than releasing heat, they must draw heat from the surroundings to dissolve. These deicers work more slowly than exothermic products, especially when temperatures are very cold and when little surface moisture is present to help them dissolve.

Following is a brief overview of the most widely-used ice melting materials and their performance characteristics.

Rock Salt (Sodium Chloride, NaCl) – Rock salt is widely used, largely because it is readily available and inexpensive. However, rock salt is endothermic. It must draw heat from the surroundings to form an ice-melting brine. With a lowest effective temperature of +20°F (-7°C), rock salt is a relatively slow and ineffective ice melter when temperatures are coldest. Like all chloride-based materials, rock salt is moderately corrosive to unprotected common metals. Lawns and other plants can be harmed if rock salt deicer is over-applied or large quantities are directly applied to grass or vegetation.

 Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) – Calcium chloride is the most widely used non-sodium chloride deicer. Its lowest effective temperature, -25°F (-32°C), is below that of other common deicers. Calcium chloride is a hygroscopic material that attracts moisture from its surroundings, speeding the creation of brine to give melting action a fast start. Calcium chloride is also exothermic. As it dissolves in contact with moisture, it releases a significant amount of heat. This makes commercial products containing high levels of calcium chloride faster ice melters and more effective at colder temperatures than rock salt and other products which must draw heat from their surroundings to dissolve and form brine.

Like all chloride-based materials, calcium chloride is moderately corrosive to unprotected common metals but, in general, there is little difference in corrosion between the various chloride-based deicers, including rock salt (sodium chloride), magnesium chloride and calcium chloride. As with other chloride-based ice melters, over exposure to calcium chloride can harm lawns and other plants if deicer is over-applied or large quantities are directly applied to grass or other vegetation.

Hoo chemtec – the industry’s largest producer – manufactures all of its calcium chloride products in china.

Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2) – Like calcium chloride, magnesium chloride is a hygroscopic material, able to attract moisture from the air. However, unlike calcium chloride, solid magnesium chloride is a hexahydrate salt, meaning it is 53% water by weight. Because this solid product is so dilute, more must be applied to deliver ice melting capacity equal to calcium chloride or sodium chloride. When the water content of solid magnesium chloride is factored into the measurements used to assess melting performance, the results show that it is somewhat less effective than sodium chloride (rock salt) after 20 minutes at 20°F, even though it is typically more expensive. Magnesium chloride is exothermic but does not release as much heat as calcium chloride. It has a lowest effective temperature of 0°F (-18°C).

Like all chloride-based materials, magnesium chloride is moderately corrosive to unprotected common metals but, in general, there is little difference in corrosion performance between the various chloride-based deicers. Chloride overexposure can harm lawns and other plants if deicer is over-applied or large quantities are directly applied to the grass or vegetation.

Potassium Chloride (KCl) – Endothermic properties and a lowest effective temperature of +25°F (-4°C) limits the use of potassium chloride for ice melting. The material performs more slowly than calcium chloride, rock salt and magnesium chloride with relatively low melt volume capability. Like other chloride materials, there is moderate potential for corrosion and environmental impacts.

Urea – Urea is also endothermic and has a relatively high lowest effective use temperature of +25°F (-4°C), which limits its use during typical winter conditions in northern regions and at higher altitudes. The material exhibits relatively slow ice penetration and low melt volume capability compared to other materials. Although urea is lower in toxicity to plants and wildlife than chloride-based products, high organic content can elevate biological oxygen demand in rivers and lakes, posing a threat to aquatic life.

Calcium Magnesium Acetate (CMA) – CMA is an expensive material typically sold in blends with rock salt or other lower cost materials. It has a lowest effective temperature roughly equivalent to rock salt, about +20°F (-7°C) and CMA exhibits low ice penetration and low melt volume capability. The relatively small percentage of CMA material present in common blends makes little contribution to the overall performance of the blended product. Like urea, CMA is lower in toxicity to plants and wildlife than chloride-based products, but the material’s high organic content can elevate biological oxygen demand in rivers and lakes, creating a potential threat to aquatic life;




proper management of snow and ice at airports is essential for on-time winter operations. These functions always include commercial aircraft movements during pushback, taxi and takeoff. But maintenance personnel must also ensure safe working conditions for luggage and cargo handling, airport security ;

Delays and employee injuries resulting from ineffective snow and ice control cost airlines, airports and their customers precious time and revenues in what today are fragile economic times for the industry. And at the same time officials must manage chemical outfall and potential environmental impacts.

Hoo chemtec supply an advanced, environmentally friendly, granular de-/anti-icer specially engineered to allow for the efficient removal of snow and ice from airport runways and aprons. Composed of Sodium Formate and Corrosion Inhibibitors, acts quicly and is FAA approved for airside use


Anhydrous Solid Granular Deicer

Easily applied with conventional spreaders

Rapidly melts ice and snow

Allows snow and ice to be cleared quickly and economically

FAA approved according to AMS 1431


Performance Advantages

Melts ice and snow faster than urea and Sodium Acetate - Effective at lower temperatures (Below Zero)  Lower use rates compared to urea and sodium acetate - Irregularly shaped granules are less likely to blow away than spherical prills.

Environmental Advantages

Helps Airports meet ecological requirements.

Does not contain Chlorides, Nitrates, or triazoles. 
Biodegradable with lower COD and BOD levels than urea and Sodium Acetate. 


Hoo chemtec's sodium formate meets or exceeds the requirements of the internationally recognized Aerospace Materials Specification AMS 1431 for solid runway and taxiway de-/anti-icing compounds.


Choosing the Right Deicer

Deicers are used when plows and brooms are not sufficient. Deicers are used to prevent bonds from forming between snow and ice and moisture in the pavement, or to break those bonds once formed. The remaining frozen deposits can then be removed mechanically. When choosing the right deicer, review the certification, the effectiveness and how the deicer works.

Deicer Certification Required from the Vendor

 Ramp and runway deicers should be certified to airport approved specifications. Deicers must pass airframe material compatibility, corrosion, concrete, paint, storage stability and other standards established by airline, airport and government officials. The liquid specification is SAE AMS 1435 and the solid is SAE AMS 1431.


Deicer Effectiveness

Deicers lower the melting point of ice and snow turning them into liquid brine solutions. When the brine makes contact with the surface it flows outward and breaks the bond between ice deposits and the pavement. A deicer"s type and active ingredient concentration determine how quickly brine forms, and the product"s residual or staying power and effectiveness.

"We used NAAC (solid sodium acetate anhydrous) on our elevated ramps, drives and sidewalks in front of the terminals from the beginning of the storm event. After the ice hit and temperatures dropped to the single digits, we mixed NAAC with sand and applied it in conjunction with E36 (liquid potassium acetate) on our tug roads and in the airline gate areas."

"The results, in every case, were extraordinary. We were able to maintain 80 to 90 percent "bare pavement" conditions in these areas throughout the storm."


Understand How Deicers Work

Liquid deicers are generally used as "anti-icers." This means they are applied before frost, ice or snow accumulate and have a chance to bond to the pavement.   The first anti-icing application is generally made just before the event starts, again as needed during the storm -following mechanical removal- to prevent bonding.

Solid deicers are generally used as "deicers." This means they are applied after snow and ice have fallen and bonded to the surface. Solids bore holes through the accumulated pack to the pavement as the deicer changes form from solid to liquid. Some solids like sodium acetate anhydrous actually give off heat (exothermic reaction) as they dissolve. It causes the solid to work faster than an endothermic product such as urea.

Solid deicers come in two forms, pellets and granules. Pelleted deicers are harder and therefore, are less dusty. And because of their even size they tend to spread more uniformly. Both deicers adhere to the surface and have less bounce during application when applied on wet or light snow covered surfaces.

Generally, anti-icing techniques are more efficient than deicing, because it requires far less energy to prevent a bond from forming than to break it. Think of holding two magnets close together but not joined. It takes little energy to keep them apart. But once the magnets are linked "like ice bonded to the pavement " it takes a lot of energy to break them apart. And so it is with anti-icing versus deicing techniques. Less chemical is required to prevent the bond than to break it. In a typical winter storm, both techniques may be necessary to provide safe working conditions.


Pavement surface temperature, ambient temperature and pavement chemical concentration levels are all variables that affect pavement refreeze. Refreezing occurs when ice control chemicals dilute sufficiently that the brine solution turns to ice. Monitoring the variables closely allows for timely reapplication before refreeze.

Sand use may cause friction levels to improve in the short term. However, sand has little long-term value in an on-going storm. There are also accompanying clean-up costs and a real concern for sand ingestion into airplane engines.

Choose the Right Application Equipment

Choosing the right deicer spreader and sprayer provides accurate, cost effective applications. Ground speed control, the right spray nozzle configuration and calibration are important for accurate chemical delivery. Spreader covers should be used to protect dry deicers.


Deicers commonly used by airports include:






sodium acetate


0°F (-18°C)


sodium acetate


20°F (-7°C)


sodium formate


0°F (-18°C)




-26°F (-32°C)




-26°F (-32°C)

Airport Runway & Concrete Deicer Anti icing Snow melting or Thawing Sodium Formate Granules Manufacturers

De-icing is defined as removal of existing, snow ice, frost, etc., from a surface. It includes both mechanical  (plowing or scraping) or chemical (application of salt or other ice melting chemicals) methods.

Anti-icing is defined as the pretreatment of a roadway, sidewalk or parking lot with ice melting chemicals before a storm, to prevent or delay the formation of ice, or the adhesion of ice and snow.

For Anti icing in airports Potassium Acetate Solution is generally sprayed on the surface. Deicing is done by Sodium Acetate Granular Xtra TM Sodium Acetate Deicer or Anti-ice or Snow melting Snow thawing agent is made of organic salts for melting the ice and snow in airstrip, parking apron and taxiway. Snow Thawing Agent for Airport is researched and approved environment-friendly snow-melting agent for melting the ice and snow in airstrip, parking apron and taxiway in very short time. It is in accordance with standard of AMS1431D.

Sodium acetate Snow-Melting, is researched and developed as one new kind of environment-friendly snow-melting agent for melting the ice and snow in airstrip, parking apron and taxiway in very short time.

Sodium Formate is alternate to Sodium Acetate.

Sodium Formate is an environment friendly snow melting chemical for melting the ice and snow in airstrip, parking apron and taxiway in very short time. It has very low corrosion values which are brought down further with added corrosion inhibitors. It meets the requirements of AMS 1435A. It is in accordance with standard of AMS1431D. It has a low biological oxygen demand. Ramp and runway deicers should be certified to airport approved specifications. SAE-AMS1431, "COMPOUND, SOLID DEICING/ANTI-ICING RUNAWAYS AND TAXIWAYS", was adopted on 23-JAN-95 for use by the Department of Defense (DoD). It Specifies BOD, TOD, biodegradation, Aquatic Toxicity Trace Contaminants Appearance, pH, Flash Point, Chloride Content, Storage Stability, Effect on Aircraft Metals, Airport Runway Concrete Scaling Resistance etc. Sodium Formate fits these specifications.  It does not harm plant and aquatic life. It has a very negligible effect on aquatic life. It is in accordance with the regulations of (Standard Method for Examination of Water and Wastewater) from USA.

Sodium Formate Specification


First Grade


Purity Net of Corrosion Inhibitor= 99.0   % minimum

Purity Net of Corrosion Inhibitor= 97.0   % minimum

Moisture%≤ 0.50 % maximum

Moisture%≤ 0.805 % maximum

NaOH= 0.03 % maximum

NaOH= 0.05805 % maximum

Na2CO3= 0.03 % maximum

Na2CO3= 0.05805 % maximum

NaCl= 250 ppm maximum

NaCl= 250 ppm maximum

Fe= 20 ppm maximum

Fe= 20 ppm maximum

Na2S= 20 ppm maximum

Na2S= 20 ppm maximum

Ph (30% in water solution)= 9-12.5

Ph (30% in water solution)= 9-12.5


Safe for all airside operational surfaces as well as landside applications.

Meets FAA approved performance and ecological requirements of AMS 1431

Staff safety—1-Step remote SuperSack discharge system

Granular shape makes it less likely to be blown away; pre-wetting not necessary

Effective at low temperatures(0°F or -18°C)

Biodegradable and environmentally friendly

High deicing efficiency (lower use rate and works faster)

Increased effectiveness at lower temperatures

Longer lasting effect than liquid deicer


hoo chemtec  offer Sodium Formate Granules & Powder. Sodium Formate may be used both as an anti iceing and as deicer.   Sodium Formate is required to be spread at the rate of around 25gm/sq.m or 0.5lb/100 sq .ft for ice at freezing point 0C or 32F. It is advisable to apply it as an anti iceing or deicer just before the storm. This will prevent the ice bonds from.

You will need to apply again when new accumulation shows first tendency to bond and plow once bond is broken. It will save a lot of labor if we apply Deicer and plowgh away before the ice bond is formed.


Sodium Formate has a tendency to loosely stick to one another during storage. If the material in the bags is lumpy, then lift the bag and drop it a couple of times to loosen it. Sodium Formate is not an environmental issue and it can be used for deicing anti-icing, even if it is exposed to moisture and caked.


All your physics and chemistry of Snow-melting, Deicer or Deicing and Anti icing.

De-icing is defined as removal of existing, snow ice, frost, etc., from a surface. It includes both mechanical  (plowing or scraping) or chemical (application of salt or other ice melting chemicals) methods.

Anti-icing is defined as the pretreatment of a roadway, sidewalk or parking lot with ice melting chemicals before a storm, to prevent or delay the formation of ice, or the adhesion of ice and snow.

Ice melting products can help facility managers keep their buildings safe and approachable. Good snow and ice control is definitely a large part of slip-and-fall prevention. Not using deicer or anti icing snow melting compounds is a costly error. Do not over use but do use it and use the right type of de icer.

The primary purpose of chemical deicing is not to melt surface ice but to diffuse down through the snow and ice to break the bond between frozen precipitation and the ground. Putting deicer on a thick snow simply doesn’t work. Ice melt must be applied on the ground for it to be effective. Ideally, this should happen in anticipation of a storm or the product should be spread before precipitation freezes or as soon as possible so that the snow does not set in to ice.

Pre-application is ideal as an initial deterrent before the snow falls, though it is often difficult to predict necessity. The freeze-thaw cycle of ice and snow causes expansion and contraction within the cracked concrete and damages it. All ice and snow melt compounds can be impractical when snow accumulates to the amounts of more than three inches. Before using in build ups of more than three inches be sure to shovel or plow away excess snow and then apply Snow melt to remaining hard packed snow. After it has penetrated and broken through ice, remove melted slush.

There are several different compounds used to melt ice and snow. Ice melting compounds consist of different types of salt. As the salt dissolves, it forms a eutectic solution also known as a brine solution. The brine solution has a lower freezing point than water. This causes ice and snow in contact with the brine solution to melt.


Anti Icing:

Brine or wetted salt is usually applied shortly before a snowstorm arrives. Properly performed, anti-icing can significantly reduce the amount of salt required, and allows easier removal by mechanical methods. Anti-icing prevents the bond of snow and ice freezing to the road surface. It also reduces the opportunity for “hard-pack” to develop and provides a wet surface under the plow’s cutting edge. When a surface has an anti-icing treatment, the first stroke of plow will usually break the ice, right from the pavement.

Anti-icing is a proactive approach to snow and ice control. Treatments consist of applying Anti-icing Brine with de-icer salt to pavement before, or at the beginning of, a storm. Treatments create a barrier to prevent snow and ice from bonding to pavement. This allows accumulated snow to be pushed off the road, leaving the pavement relatively dry.

Anti-icing reduces the total chemical use,

Anti-icing reduces materials and equipment costs and time,

Pavement conditions are better when ice formation is prevented,

Anti-icing makes post-storm cleanup easier and faster.

Deicing Anti icing, Snow melting thawing Information

The function of ice melting chemicals is to break the bond between the road surface and the ice that forms on it. Once the bond is broken, the ice can be easily chipped off. Snow melting compound can also be used on cleared surfaces to prevent ice from forming. The amount of snow melting product that should be used depends on the thickness of ice desired to be removed, temperature, and type of ice melter. The right amount will penetrate through the ice and form a brine solution underneath the sheet of ice loosening the bond allowing the ice to be broken off.

De-icing of roads has traditionally been done with salt, spread by snowplows or dump trucks designed to spread it, often mixed with sand and gravel, on slick roads. Sodium chloride (natural raw common salt) is normally used, as it is inexpensive and readily available in large quantities. However, salt is workable for snow melting up to −9 °C or 15 °F, it is of no help when the temperature falls below this point. It also has a strong tendency to cause corrosion, rusting the steel used in most vehicles and the rebar in concrete bridges. More recent snow-melters use other salts, such as calcium chloride and magnesium chloride, which not only depress the freezing point of water to a much lower temperature, but also produce an exothermic reaction. These too contain chloride ions, with a tendency to corrode steel.

More recently, organic compounds have been developed that reduce the environmental issues connected with salts and have longer residual effects when spread on roadways, usually in conjunction with salt brines or solids. Mixing common rock salt with some organic compounds and magnesium chloride or calcium chloride results in spread-able materials that are both effective to much colder temperatures as well as at lower overall rates of spreading per unit area.


Chemical Ice treatment materials include:

Raw Salt Sodium Chloride Deicer Sodium Chloride (natural raw common salt, NaCl)

Calcium Chloride Anhydrous Granular Calcium Chloride (CaCl2)

Snow Melting Magnesium Chloride Flakes Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2)

Potassium Chloride Granules Potassium Chloride and Urea (KCl and (NH2)2CO)

Ice Melting Thawing Sodium Formate Sodium Formate (HCOONa)

Airport & Concrete Deicer Sodium Acetate Anhydrous Granules Sodium Acetate (CH3COONa)

Antiicer Potassium AcetatePotassium Acetate (CH3COOK)

Calcium Magnesium AcetateCalcium-Magnesium Acetate (C4H6O2Ca and C4H6O2Mg)

And many others ----------------------

Temperature Ranges for Snow melting or thawing; Deicer and Anti-icing Chemicals:

Using anti-icer, deicer or snow thawing or ice melting compounds to clear snow and ice from walks, drives, and entries near public buildings a universal practice. To achieve safe surfaces in the shortest time with the least total cost, ice melters are a necessity. Since this item has widespread acceptance, the market attracts a host of suppliers, some genuine and others creating a hype about their product. Many of these products are packaged with no mention of their chemical composition. Some others specifies contents but make erroneous or misleading claims about the products’ abilities, resulting in confusion.

The scientific method of snow melting or ice melting compounds’ effectiveness is the range of temperatures in which it can provide deicing action. The “practical” lowest temperature limits for these materials is defined as effective within 15-20 minutes of application and is listed next to the material.


Environmental Aspects:

Emphasis has been placed on the environmental impact of ice melters and many studies have been conducted. Virtually all of these studies have concluded that, given the alternative of hazardous conditions, the benefits of ice melters far outweigh their potential disadvantages. However, these concerns should be addressed.

Effect On Vegetation: All deicers or anti icing chemicals have the potential to damage plant life. However, in the amounts recommended for grounds maintenance, the threat to grass, trees and shrubs is minimal.

Effect on Concrete: Many are concerned with deicers’ or snow melting compound’s effects on concrete. Ammonium sulfate will chemically attack concrete. Chlorides will attack the iron bars in concrete and steel in other structures. When the freezing point of water is depressed, the number of freeze-thaw cycles the water goes through can increase. And the expansion of freezing water (hydraulic pressure) can exceed the strength limits of the concrete.

Corrosion: Ice melters can corrode steel in the concrete and in the vehicles moving on it. XtraTM Sodium acetate Snow Melting Agent is researched and developed as a new environment-friendly snow-melting agent for melting the ice and snow in airstrip, parking apron and taxiway in very short time. Sodium acetate and calcium magnesium acetate are dry, non-corrosive and biodegradable snow removal chemicals. The cheSodium Formate/Acetate Blend